Differences in cancer incidence by major ethnic group in England, 2013-2017

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Br J Cancer. 2022 Mar 2. doi: 10.1038/s41416-022-01718-5. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The variation in cancer incidence between population groups can inform public health and cancer services. Previous studies have shown that cancer incidence rates vary by ethnic group in England. Since their publication, the completeness of recording ethnicity in cancer data has improved and relevant inequalities (e.g. prevalence of risk factors and access to health care) may have changed.

METHODS: Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for Asian, Black, Mixed/Multiple and White ethnic groups in England in 2013-2017, using nearly 3 million diagnoses at 31 cancer sites. Rate ratios were calculated with white ethnic group as reference. Sensitivity analyzes used imputed ethnicity for cases with missing data and perturbed population estimates.

RESULTS: Incidence rates for most cancer sites and combinations of ethnic groups and gender were lower in non-white minority ethnic groups compared to the corresponding white group, with particularly low rate ratios (less than 0.5) for skin cancer melanoma and some smoking-related cancers (lung, bladder and esophageal cancers). Exceptions included prostate cancer (2.1 times higher in black men), myeloma (2.7 to 3.0 times higher in black people), several gastrointestinal cancers intestinal (1.1 to 1.9 times higher in people of black origin, 1.4 to 2.2 times higher in people of black origin). people of Asian descent), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (1.1 times higher in Asian men, 1.3 times higher in black men) and thyroid cancers (1.4 times higher in people of Asian ethnicity, 1.2 times higher in people of black ethnicity). Sensitivity analyzes did not significantly change these results (rate ratios changed by a maximum of 12 percentage points, direction and significance of results remained unchanged across all cancer site/sex/group combinations ethnic except two).

CONCLUSIONS: People from a non-white ethnic minority in England generally have a lower cancer risk than the white population, although there are a number of notable exceptions. These results should galvanize efforts to better understand the reasons for this variation and the possible impact on cancer services, patient experiences and outcomes.

PMID:35233092 | DOI: 10.1038/s41416-022-01718-5

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