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Am J Alcohol and drug abuse. 2021 9: 1-11. doi: 10.1080 / 00952990.2021.1977310. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Tobacco-related disparities exist among minority racial / ethnic groups.
OBJECTIVE: We compared smoking cessation ratios and protective and risk factors for smoking cessation by race / ethnicity to inform approaches to reduce disparities.
METHODS: Among adults who smoke with an attempt to quit Wave 4 (2016-2017) Population Assessment of Tobacco Use and Health Study, the following factors were examined by racial / ethnic group (American Indian / Native Americans). Alaska [AI/AN;n = 165], Black / African American [AA;n = 526], Asian [n = 38], Hispanic / Latino / Latina / Spanish [n = 475], or White [n = 1,960]), where everyone was almost gender balanced: withdrawal medication, counseling / self-help materials, home smoking ban, social support, e-cigarette use, sleep and mental health.
RESULTS: The dropout ratio was lower for AI / AN (adjusted odds ratio[aOR]: 0.61) and Black / AA (aOR: 0.49) and higher for Asians (aOR: 1.90) and Hispanic / Latino / Latina / Spanish (aOR: 1.30) than white adults. Medication consumption was low among all and lower among blacks / AA (aOR: 0.70) and Hispanics / Latinos / Latinas / Spaniards (aOR: 0.56) than among white adults. Use of counseling / self-help materials was low among all and higher in AI / AN (aOR: 1.85), Black / AA (aOR: 1.87) and Hispanic / Latino / Latina / Spanish (aOR: 1.49) than white adults. The presence of a smoking ban was lower among blacks / AA (aOR: 0.40) and higher among Hispanics / Latinos / Latinos / Spanish (aOR: 1.59) than white adults. E-cigarette use was lower among blacks / AA (aOR: 0.53) and Hispanics / Latinos / Latinas / Spaniards (aOR: 0.43) than among white adults. Sadness, anxiety, and difficulty sleeping were higher in AI / AN (aOR: 1.57, 1.50, 1.64) than in white adults.
CONCLUSIONS: All racial / ethnic groups would benefit from policies and programs that increase medication and counseling to quit smoking. Dropout ratios were particularly low in black / AA and AI / AN adults. Black / AA adults may benefit from efforts to increase smoking bans, while AI / NA adults may benefit from withdrawal approaches that simultaneously target sleep and mental health.